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    conclusions may be questionable, and indeed are questioned and reinterpreted above, this does not lessen the debt owed to Luce by any student of these periods. The story of the western discovery of Pagan is of some interest and a necessary prelude to the chapters that follow-that in a sense are the sum, or synthesis, of these earlier discoveries. :Marco Polo, in the late 13th century, as member of the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan's entourage, was most likely the first European to learn of the city. In 1298 he was to dictate, whilst in prison in Genoa:
     You must know that at the end of fifteen days journey lies a city called Mien (Burma) of great size and splendour, which is the capital of the kingdom. The inhabitants are idolators and speak a language of their own. They are subject to the Great Khan. And in this city is a very remarkable object of which I will now tell you. Marco Polo goes on to describe great gilded towers and the finials of monuments, "...and round the whole circuit were little gilded bells that tinkled every rime the wind blew through them"; just like the hti of Burma today.' Marco Polo may not have physically visited Pagan; however, in December 1283 when the Mongols engaged the Burmese forces at Nga-saun-gyan in the north and defeated them, it was this battle that Polo witnessed and described in some detail in TheTravels.As a direct consequence of the Great Khan's victory he wrote: "And from this day forward the Khan began to have elephants in plenty. In 1795 Michael Symes led a diplomatic mission, from the Governor General of India to the Court of Ava, and travelled up the Irrawaddy, from the coast to the capital, passing Pagan and noting it in his account.` Symes was most likely not the first European to spot Pagan from the river, for at least two centuries before this Western mercenaries had been in the pay of the -various kings and dynasties operating in the region.

No.1: the gyi c.1855 by Colesworthy Grant from Yule's Narrative
    However, such men of action were rarely men of letters and left no record of their impressions of the former capital. By the middle part of the 18th century, early envoys from the East India Company had begun to visit Ava, though they barely gave the former capital a mention in their various reports and narratives. Pagan was not a significant staging post on the river route, and even today steamers stop upstream at U and not at the village itself. Thus in 1795 Michael Symes recorded his impression:
    Leaving the temple at Logahnunda nanda), we approached the once magnificent city of Pagaham. We could see little more from the river than a few straggling houses, which have the appearance of having once been a connected street: in fact, scarcely anything remains of ancient Pagaham, except its numerous moulding temples, and the vestiges of an old brick fort, the ramparts of which are still to be traced.
    On his return journey Symes actually visited some of the temples and mentioned the regilding and restoration operations in progress, for it was at this time that king Bodawpaya sent the Crown Prince, who took the title `Prince of Pagan', to supervise the restoration of the city." It is significant that the Burmese themselves discovered the significance, symbolic, historical or artistic, of Pagan, and commenced restoration work there, exactly a century before the British were to introduce `archaeology' to the region. It was close to Pagan that one of the final engagements of the First Burmese War of 1826 was fought; Colonel Havelock in his history of the campaign noted of the monuments:
    The sensation of barren wonderment is the only one which Pagaham excites. There is little to admire, nothing to venerate, nothing to exalt the notion of the taste land invention of the people that the traveller might have already formed in Rangoon or Prome.

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