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     Here is an easily defined Early type: the figures bold yet approachable; a balance between the hierarchic and the human, the, elevated and the compassionate. Again, architectonic forms dominate the to Vie, an essentially indigenous device; what is of recent importation is the expanded subject matter. By the reign of Kyanzittha (1084-1113) the Pala influence, in physiognomy and physiology, is certainly evident, indeed, to such an extent that it has been claimed that these images must be the work of visiting Bengali artists. Such a hypothesis is unlikely, the indigenous evolution is clear and, though a Pala mariner of interpreting face and body is present, the Ananda reliefs lack the aloofness of their Indian counterparts. The all-encompassing sweetness, enveloping warmth and benign sense of welcome expressed so succinctly in the Ananda reliefs may be derived from the gentle art of Mon-Dvaravati, together with a touch of that Pyu taste for monumentality. A further development from the sculpture of the Naga-yon hall to the An anda is in the reduction of the narrative to the predella all emphasis is on the Buddha, raised, or elevated, to a supramundane scale. Luce noted a number of reliefs in the Ananda cross-passages that illustrate scenes identical to those in the outer ambulatory, these he convincingly explains are rejects from the main series on account of their expressive freedom and lack of symmetry." Kyanzittha sought an art that was to be educative through its human appeal, but never through familiarity. Kyanzittha, like any proper Buddhist king, was concerned with order:
     Predellas he approved: a large Buddha above, in one or other of the accepted poses; below, a small predella, to identify the scene. But the means to do so are often meagre: four monks in worship hardly suffice. And though the total effect of such a relief may please, or even move the devout, it gets monotonous. If the architectural background forced some unity on the design, it also numbed movement, life and action ...The tendency has been to petrify religious sculpture in a lifeless hierarchic groove; and by cutting out distance, chiaroscuro and perspective to confine it to two dimensional decoration.
     Luce's interpretation is valid, however, what he ignores was the Pagan conception of the Buddha. Though anthropomorphically depicted, he was never to be represented on the human scale and usually his image in temple shrines was colossal, that is, supramundane. When it was physically impossible to depict a Buddha on a colossal scale his `might' was expressed by the reduction of gods, men and events to a lesser size. Though superhuman in his physical dimensions, the Buddha's compassion embraces all, a sensation readily conveyed by the moving nature of Kyanzittha's images. The scene where the bodhisattva Gotama cuts off his hair is quite dynamic: an energetic and potent image, hardly monotonous.
     The Ananda relief style, the product of a clear, local evolution, refreshed by a wave of Pala influence, was to be short lived. Though a number of stone reliefs from this period, and later, are to be seen in the Pagan museum, the main events of the Buddha's life were rarely depicted in stone relief after this period, and never again on the scale of the Ananda series. In the Myinkaba Kub-yank-nge, there is a stone relief series that dates to the Late Period, however, this seems to be an isolated survival of an Early Period tradition." Though the Buddha legend remained a central theme in mural paintings, the scarcity of good stone made such programmes unentertainable. Maybe, Kyanzittha's purification completed, there was less need for so didactic an art, and the more decorative medium of painting, or less costly and more rapidly produced, stucco work tended to replace stone relief scenes.
     Intermediary between the three standing shrine images of the Naga-yon and the four colossal standing figures of the Ananda, in each case constructed from wood, are the four bronzes of the Shwe-zigon which again suggest that the Pagan sculptors' idiom evolved locally, and was not the work of immigrant artists. The quality of casting of these images is very fine. Like other standing images from the Early Period, the robes hang with striated folds, the bodies are curvaceous, with a thin waist and broad, well-rounded hips. Again, they achieve a compromise between aloofness and compassion. Considering that these are among the earliest bronzes from the Pagan dynastic periods, with little other than a few Pyu bronzes predating them, the sudden advent of skilful and large scale bronze casting at Pagan is prodigious (these images average over 3.5m high). It is easy to surmise that this was the work of visiting bronze casters, yet, in style and form they correspond to contemporary local work in stone. Smaller versions of this type of standing bronze image of the Buddha, in vitar kamudra, may be found in the Ananda Kyaung-taik and in one monastery near Chauk. These exquisite images are the ultimate manifestation of the Pagan bronze casters' genius: smooth whilst rich, sensitive whilst strong, sweet yet succinctthe finest visual expressions of Kyanzittha's brilliant reign.
     The Pala wave of influence in Buddha images was short lived; by the start of the Middle Period, c.1120, faces broaden, bodies seem shorter, squatter and quite stout by comparison. Standing Buddhas, as individual portable works, such as bronzes, or as temple icons, no longer seem to be in vogue, unless when required in a scene from the bodawin, now generally expressed in paintings or stucco, not stone. The often colossal seated images in brick and stucco, that fill the temple shrines, are neither human nor hierarchic; an integral component of the temple design, these brick and stucco projections were no longer conceived to conduce, assisted by tricks of light and shade, some metaphysical relationship between hpaya and devotee. Conversion and purification now completed, the `true' faith firmly established, temple icons had less need to create an impact; a token, perhaps standard ised, presence replaces the tactile pull of Kyanzittha's images. Some conventional bhumisparsa buddha stele, usually of sandstone, from the Middle and Late Periods do survive, whilst little in bronze from these otherwise artistically prolific, periodsremains. Stucco carvings of the eight bodawin scenes were, in varying scale, conveniently included along the eight wall faces, between the transepts, of the temple shrine outer wall. In certain instances the bodawin was arranged along the inner wall, in place of the lei-myethna or four cosmic buddhas, for example at South Gu Ni or at Mye-bon-tha, where the bodawin was reduced to an essential four scenes, or 'potted life'." There is still some, intensity about these lesser images, for stone is a more expressive medium than piled brick coated in plaster. One head in the Pagan Museum expresses the Late Period image succinctly, the allpervasive smile is both human and divine, approachable, its supra-mundane qualities instantly recognisable.
     The development of the bodawin in sculpture, whether stone or stucco, was paralleled in mural paintings. Approximately contemporary to the Nagayon hall reliefs, similar scenes were painted along the outer walls of the Pa-hto-tha-mya and Myinpya-gu ambulatories. In the Late Period, a painted version of the Bedouin, as in stucco versions reduced to either four or eight scenes, proved a popular alternative to a sculptural medium.
     By the end of the Late Period, such an equilibrium between the tactile and the aloof, that had reached its high point around 1100, becomes increasingly displaced by a sentimentalising tendency towards the cherub-like sweetness that was to characterise the art of the Ava periods. As in wall paintings from this period, sinuousness displaces tension; they charm with humour and some wit, they do not move the beholder with the intensity and spiritual radiance of the Early Period image.
CROWNED IMAGES
     In the periods of Burma's art that follow those of the Pagan Dynasty, large crowned and seated images of the Buddha in bhumisparsamudra were frequently placed as the main image of a temple. In the Pagan Period crowned types were rarely used for the main image, though a number of portable bronze crowned images have been found. Images of Gotama, the Buddha, crowned and royally adorned, are often confused with those of Mettaya who may be depicted in a similar manner. The principal difference between these two is in the mudra and type of regalia. Gotama, though crowned, retains his monk's robes and is seated in a characteristic earth touching pose Mettaya wears a bejewelled costume, adorned with much finery, and his hands are placed in his lap, in dhyanmydra In the case of some Pyu Mettaya images which have been found at Pagan, -the posture used, common to- seated bodhisattva, is lalitasana. If
     crowned, Gotama, or Jambupati as sorne scholar refer to him, though the term is not generally used i Burma, may be confused with Mettaya; in turn Mettay may be confused with the bodhisattva Lokantha, version of the. Mahayana bodhisattva Avalokitesvara The earliest images of Gotama crowned, wearing hi monk's robe and' subduing Mara, in bhumispar samurai, found in the region, are Arakanese, from th pre-Pagan site of Vesali. Pamela Gutman has pub lished this version and other crowned images fror Arakan and discusses the adaption, from Pala protc types, of their physiognomy and physiology to sui local tastes. No Pyu-crowned version of Gotama i known, though other crowned figures, bodhisattv, and Hindu divinities, abounded in Pyu centres. Got ama, in royal costume, may well have found his way to Pagan by way of such Arakanese bronzes. Likewise Luce identifies an Arakanese type close in style to ; bronze from the original Maha-muni shrine of Met taya. Images and their iconography are always interchangeable and the later jambupati images may well have been adaptions of Pyu Mettaya versions Stone tablets. called andagu, that may have beer copied from Pala models. also show an image o Gotama crowned. The lambupati image thus may have come to Pagan, either directly from Bengal, in the case of votive tablets, or indirectly, in the case o' bronze castings, through Arakan.
     What was to evolve was a distinctive image Gotarna crowned, that has since become a highly venerated type of image for Buddhists throughout the Theravada world. Essentially this representation is a merging of the Buddha and cakkauatti conception. both are concerned with the dhamma, in the Buddha's case sacred dhamma, in the cakkavatti case temporal dhamma: and each is associated with the cakke or 'Wheel', and each ranks a stupa for burials= This envision of the Buddha as a princely figure. though popular amongst the Arakanese, earlier and contemporary to the Pagan Dynasty, was not to develop in Burma till later and at Pagan it is confined to portable bronze or andagu images. In no temple or shrine does a permanent Jamhupati image feature as the central icon. However, from the inscriptions. we know that it was popular to dress and adorn images with fine royal garments. The plain and unadorned image one finds in today's deserted temples. was thus originally royally regaled, and was treated, as epigra phy details, with the reverence due to an actual king, ritually bathed and perfumed on a daily basis. entertained with music and dance, and attended by slaves, bonded to serve into perpetuity.''' No doubt coronets and other jewellery, long since pilfered, embellished these images, as is the practice in a number of popular shrines today. The .inscriptions that record the dedication of these lavishly maintained images were usually explicit that they were in honour of the' last buddha, Gotama. By honouring Gotama a path was prepared to salvation-Mettaya.

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