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ELIMINATION OF NARCOTIC DRUGS
     Opium is originated in the Mediterranean region, central Europe about 4000 B( It reached the ports of Pathein and Thanlyin in southern Myanmar through India After the Opium War, the habit of opium consumption and poppy cultivation pre vailed and the habit spread among the national races in border areas in eastern Myanmar adjacent to China. After annexation of the entire Myanmar in 1886, the British Colonialists lega ized the cultivation of opium poppy in some areas in eastern Shan State, and Kachi and licensed opium dens and opium consumption. By the time of the British evacua tion from Myanmar, there had been 48211 registered opium addicts and 216 license opium dens.
MYANMAR'S EFFORTS FOR THE ERADICATION OF OPIUM IN SUCCESSIVE ERAS
The Background education10
     During the Royal Era, opium was strictly prohibited by sentencing opium con sumers and traffickers to death. After Independence, measures were taken to elimi nate the cultivation of opium poppy within 5 years and laws suppressing the cultiva tion of opium poppy and opium dens were promulgated. A drug treatment hospita was opened in Yangon and measures were also taken for the treatment and rehabilita tion of drug addicts.
The Era of the Revolutionary Council
     The Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs Act of 1974 was enacted during the era for eradication of poppy cultivation in Kokang and Wa regions for their social development. Frontier Areas Administration committees were formed and study tours of poppy cultivating areas in northern Shan State were organized for international observers and plans were drawn up.
Measure Taken by the State Council
     The People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) adopted a resolution for participation of the entire population with national outlook in eradication of narcotic drugs. A Central Committee was formed for the purpose. With the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, crop substitution, education campaign, treatment on drugs and rehabilitation of drug addicts were carried out. From 1974 till 1988, narcotic drugs suppression activities were carried out with the assistance and contribution of the USA.
Measure Taken by the State Council The Era of the State Law and Order Restoration Council
     The State Law and Order Restoration Council promulgated the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Law of 1993 and rules, which were prepared on the basic of the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
     (a) The Central Committee for Drug; Abuse Control The Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control, with the Minister for Home Affairs as Chairman, and Work Committees were formed. Similarly, Drugs Abuse Control Committees was set up at state, division, district, township, village tracts and ward levels.
     (b)Eleven Work Committees Eleven Work Committees are as follows:
(1) Law Enforcement Supervisory Committee
(2) Law Enforcement Sector Committee
(3) Crop Substitution Sector Committee
(4) Livestock Breeding Sector Committee
(5) Medical Treatment Sector Committee
(6) Rehabilitation Sector Committee
(7) Committee on Sector for Educating Students and Youths
(8) Mass Media Sector Committee
(9) Administrative Committee for disposal of narcotic drugs and psy- substances
(10) International Relations Sector Committee
(11) Property Examination Committee
     (c) Myanmar's two national strategies for elimination of narcotic drugs There are two national strategies for elimination of narcotic drugs:-
(1) To designate the prevention and suppression of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as a national responsibility and to carry out this responsibility with added momentum from all sides.
(2) To gradually eliminate poppy cultivation in line with the improvement of the socio-economic conditions of the national races in border areas.
     (d) Three tactics capital
The following three tactics have been adopted:
( 1 ) Law Enforcement ( 2 ) Supply Elimination ( 3 ) Demand reduction
     (e) Law Enforcement The Police Force, the Customs Department, Special Anti-Narcotics Units and local authorities are taking the following measures under the leadership of the Defence Services (The Tatmadaw)
( 1 ) Collection of baseline data on annual poppy cultivation and drugs consumption (2) Destruction of poppy fields (3) Destruction of opium refineries
     (f) Supply Elimination The amount of drugs that have been torched and destroyed at the 15th destruction on 12-5-2001 were as follows:
Opium    1301.428    kilograms
Heroin    116.469    kilograms
Marijuana   439.931    kilograms
Ephedrine   1562.692    kilograms
ATS tablet
     Destruction of Narcotic Drugs Through Torching Seized narcotic drugs destroyed in Yangon for 15 times (13-2-90 to 12-5-2001) are as follows:
Opium 23694.108 kilos
Heroin 3747.529 kilos
Opium oil 195.519 kilos
Opium liquid 435.604 kilos
Morphine 221.819 kilos
Marijuana 5417.709 kilos
Phensedyl 30417.015 liters
Cough mixture (containing opium) 1518121 litres
Injection (containing opium) 1489 ampoules
Stimulants 80855208 tablets
Ephedrine 11582448 kilos
Methaqualone 7311 tablets
Cough tablets 39177 tablets
Diphenoxylate 72232 tablets
Morphine sulphate 10 tablets
Ephedrine tablets 54458 tablets
Phenobarbital 8008 tablets
Phenobarbital (injection) 23 ampoules
Ephedrine (injection) 28 ampoules
Stimulant (crush) 30.452 kilos
Methadone 10.8 litres
Phenyl acetic acid 2143.471 kilos
Opium tree 0.48 kilo
Opium Powder 21.787 kilo
Lizotan 150000 tablets
Destruction of Narcotic Drugs in Border Areas
     With the conscious participation of the national races, narcotic drugs were destroyed 19 times in border area as follows;
Opium 3122.383 kilograms
Heroin 405.9054 kilograms
Morphine 245.76 kilograms
Phensedyl 689.75 litres
Inferior opium 59.472 kilograms
Acetic anhydride 419.0 gallons
Stimulants 715492 tablets
Poppy fields 7836 acres
Opium refineries 21 Nos.
Hydrochloric Acid 291.47 gallons
Sulfuric Acid 232.5 gallons
Other liquid chemicals 4309 gallons
Lysol 198.73 gallons
Ammonium chloride 2261.02 gallons
Sodium carbonate 5150 gallons
Bone charcoal 59.472 gallons
Paraphernalia 628 Nos.
education10
Suppression of Production, Transport and Trafficking of Opium Through Military Operations
     Some armed groups in Myanmar had engaged in the production transport and trafficking of opium and the government had launched the following military operations to suppress these activities:
    
  • Melone Operation
  • Nga-Ye-Pan Operation
  • Taung-Hteik-pan Operation
  • Taung-Yan-Shin Operation
  • Moehein Operation
  • (g) Demand Reduction
         As a result of the offensives, the MTA led by U Khun Sa unconditionally surrendered to the Government bringing with them over 15000 members, about 10000 pieces of assorted weapons and lots of ammunition. This surrender has led to reduction in cultivation and processing opium poppy and trafficking. During this era, the Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control and Work Committees were constituted with Deputy Ministers as members. A Monitoring Committee was also formed with the Deputy Minister for Home Affairs as Chairman. Measures for law enforcement, supply elimination and demand elimination are being taken with added momentum.
    Accession to the United Nations Conventions on Narcotic Drugs
         Myanmar acceded to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, on 29 July 1963 and to the Convention on Psychotropic Substances on 20 June 1994. Myanmar became a Signatory to the Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988 on 9 September 1991 with the reservation on Article 6 concerning extradition and Article 32 (2) (3) on settlement of disputes which states that in the event disputes between member nations remain unresolved, arbitration will be sought at the International Court of Justice and its decision shall be taken as final and binding. On extradition, Myanmar's reservation states that the provision on extradition shall not apply to Myanmar citizens.
    Cooperation among Myanmar-China-Thai and the United Nations Drug; Control Programme
         Agreement on Drug Abuse Control in Myanmar-China and Myanmar-Thailand border areas was signed on 12 June 1992. Under the agreement, sub-projective on Integrated Rural Development (Mongyang-Silu region) (Tacheleik Sanlu) and subprojects on law enforcement and demand reduction were implemented from 1992 to June 1997. A 5 year project on the development of Wa Regions (south) is also implemented.
    Cooperation among, 3 MoU Countries-Myanmar, Thailand and Laos
         First meeting on cooperation among the three countries was held in Bangkok in 1992, the second in Yangon from 9 February to 10 February, 1994 and the third in Lunprabon, Laos from 4 to 5 July 1997. Joint communiques were issued at the end of each meeting.
    Cooperation among 6 MoU Countries-Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, China, Cambodia and Vietnam
    education12      The 6 nations MoU on cooperation was preceded by 4 nations MoU signed by Myanmar, China, Laos and Thailand in 1993. At the Ministerial meeting held in Beijing in 1995, Cambodia and Vietnam joined the MoU and the meeting of 6 MoU countries was held in Myanmar in 1996 and again in Thailand in 1997. At present, 11 sub-regional projects prepared by the UNDCP are being implemented by the 6 MoU countries. In May 2001, in cooperaton with UNDCP Myanmar hosted the senior officers Meeting of the signatory countries to the MoU on drug control in East Asia and the Pacific Sub-region. And also the ministerial meeting of the signatory countries to the MoU on drug control in East Asia and the Pacific subregion was held on 11 May 2001, In August 2001, the Senior officials Meeting, the Ministerial Meeting and the Meeting of the Heads of State were hosted in Yangon for the first time at the Drug Elimination Museum.
    Cooperation with ASEAN
         Myanmar participated in 18th ASEAN Senior Official on Drug Matters (ASOD) held in Bangkok, Thailand from 21 to 25 August 1995 and the 19th ASOD held in Hanoi, Vietnam from 16 to 20 September 1996 as observer. The 20th ASOD held in Bander Sri Bagawan, Brunei Darussalam from 19 to 22 August 1997 was attended by Myanmar as a full member of ASEAN. At present, Myanmar is participating in the implementation of 10 ASEAN Drug Control Projects.
    Co-operation with UNDCP
         In co-operation with the UNDCP, the government is implementing alternative development projects and illicit crop monitoring programmes in the poppy cultivation areas, as well as buckwheat cultivation and other alternative crops as cropsubstitution, with the assistance of Japan and China respectively.
    Myanmar-US Cooperation in opium yield survey
         Myanmar and United State, had jointly carried out opium yield surveys in February 1993, February 1995 and March 1997.
    Cooperating with other countries
         Myanmar is cooperating with the Russian Federation, Laos and the Philippines under the bilateral agreements signed with them.
         Fifteen-Year Project of Drugs Abuse Elimination [1999-2014]
    Five-Year Plans laid down to eliminate cultivation are as follows:
        
    (a) First Five-Year Plan (1999-2000 to 2003-2004)
    (b) Second Five-Year Plan (2004-2005 to 2008-2009)
    (c) Third Five-Year Plan (2009-2010 to 2013-2014)
         The First Five-Year Plan will cover 15 townships in Shan State (North), one township in Shan State (East), Mongla Region, 6 townships in Shan State (South). The Second Five-Year plan will cover 4 townships in Kachin State, 6 townships in Shan State (North), 7 townships in Shan State (East), 3 townships in Shan State (South). The Third Five-Year Plan will cover 5 townships in Shan State (South), 2 townships in Kayah State, 2 townships in Chin State. The whole project will cover 51 townships and total area is 55102.454 square miles and 1469 village-tracts in the interest of 3817199 persons.
    Educating the Students and Youths
    education15     The Myanmar Government is carrying out drug education work in the country as a national duty. The education sector was constituted under the Central Committee for Drug Abuse Control and the Basic Education Department and the Higher Education Department are important components of the sector. The aim of the sector is to guard the youths against the danger of narcotic drugs through drug education. The sector is formed at the Central, Basic Education, High, Middle and Primary School levels. Formation of similar groupings at university/college level is also envisaged. Four Sub-committees have been formed at the Central and they are: Exhibition, Competition, and Training Sub-committee, Conference, Research and Assessment Subcommittee, Budget and Procurement Sub-committee. The members of the Subcommittees are experienced personnel from various departments.
         The sector educates youth with emphasis on demand reduction. It also initiates drug education on supply reduction. Drug education programmes are conducted with the conviction that prevention is cent-per-cent successful and more effective that providing treatment after addition. Drug education prorammes are carried out as follows:
    Talks and Lectures
         . Talks for the students are organized in class or at school assemblies.
         . Drug education talks are given at the monthly Parents and Teachers Associa tion meetings.
         . Talks for the public are organized with the joint sponsorship of teachers and parents. ;.
         . Professionals like doctors, judges and police officers are invited to give talks,
    Curriculum
         .Fables, stories, poems, and words of advice on the ill effects of narcotic drugs are included in the school subiects.
         .Specific curricula on drug education and HIV/AIDS are formulated and taught at schools.
    Exhibitions and Competitions
         . Exhibitions and competitions are organized jointly by teachers, parents and students at school, township, district and state/division level every year.
         . Exhibitions and competitions are organized at ceremonies on 26 June, the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and at ceremonies destroying seized narcotic drugs.
         . Drug education painting, cartoon, poster, essay, poem, story and article competitions are organized and prizes presented. Competitions are organized on significant days such as Independence Day, Union Day, Armed Forces Day, World Food Day and etc. an prizes are awarded to the winners to divert the attention of the youths from narcotic drugs.
         . Arrangements are made to enable students to undergo sports training and engage in performing arts practising, school health activities, Students Sports Festival and Performing Arts Competitions.
    Opium Free Zones
         The strenuous and complex task of setting up opium free zones was formulated with the consequence of being able to declare the establishment of an opium free zone on 22 April 1997 in Mongla Region, Special Region-4, Shan State (East). On the some day the Museum Commemorating the Elimination of opium was opened. It was projected that opium free zones were also be established in Kokang Area by the year 2000 and in the Wa Region by the year 2005. 1997 in Mongla Region, Special Region 4, Shan State (East), on the same day the Museum commemerating the Elimination of opium was opened. It was projected that opium free zones were also be established in Kokang Area by the year 2000 and in the Wa Region by the year 2005.
    Laukkai Drugs Elimination Museum
         The Drugs Elimination Museum in Laukkai, Kokang Area Shan State (North) Special Region 1, was opened on 27 December 2000.
         It was built with the aims of educating the public through the display of photographs featuring how the poppy growing practice originated, the ill-effects of narcotic drugs and measures taken for narcotic drugs control.
    Drugs Elimination Museum [Yangon]
         The Drug Elimination Museum was opened with ceremony on 26-6-2001 at the corner of Kyundaw Road and Hanthawady Road in Kamayut Township, Yangon, hailing the International day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.
         The Museum will go down in history as a concrete landmark by truly reflecting the history of Myanmar's concerted national efforts to combat narcotic drugs.
    education10      Moreover, the Museum will record faithfully and show vividly how opium and opium cultivation was introduced into the nation by colonialists, how the acts of unscrupulous elements who, with political motives, exacerbated the situation and how, under the guidance of the successive Governments, the people of Myanmar have been fighting continuously with a view to permanently eradicating the dark shadow of narcotic drugs with great sacrifice including loss of life and limbs. All these historical facts will be preserved in the exhibits in the Museum.
         In particular, with the ensuring of peace and national reconsolidation in the country, which constitute the historic achievement of the State Peace and Development Council, the positive conditions for the eradication of narcotic drugs that has resulted from the concerted efforts of the Government, leaders of the national races and the local populace have now been recorded in this Museum.
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