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Ministry Of Health
     The two main objectives of the Ministry of Health are to : (1) to enable every citizen to attain full life expectancy and (2) to ensure that every citizen is free from diseases.
National Health Committee NHC
     The NHC was formed as part of the policy reforms introduced in 1990 and organized on February 12, 1998. It takes the leadership role and gives guidance in implementing the health programmes systematically and efficiently.
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     Built in monitoring and evaluation process is undertaken at State/Division and Township level on regular basis. Implementation of National Health Plan at various levels is carried out in collaboration and co-operation with health related sectors and NGOs
National Health Plan [1996-_2001]
     The National Health Plan [ 1996-2001 ] is continuation of the NHP [ 1993-1996] and hence the following broad programme areas as in the previous NHP are included.
     1. Community Health Care Programme
     2. Disease Control Programme
     3. Hospital Care Programme
     4. Environment Health Programme
     5. Health Systems Development Programme
     6. Organization and Management Programme
Specific Measures
     Effective measures are being taken throughout country to deal with TB, a contagious disease whose incidence has increased in recent years.
     Programmes are also being carried out for the prevention and control of diseases such as malaria, leprosy and HIV/AIDS.
Development of Border Areas and Special Regions
Sr.No Particulars 1988-89 1999-2000 2000-2001
1 Hospitals 8 44 46
2 Station Health Unit - 1 1
3 Dispensaries 6 74 74
4 Rural Health Centres - 38 38
5 Sub-Centres - 31 31
Health ups Facilities 131 Special Regions
     One station hospital and four sub-rural health centres have been opened in Khaikdon region, Kya-in-seikkyi Township, Kayin State; and one rural health centre and four sub-rural health centres, opened in Kyeik region in the same state.
     As part of the measures taken to ensure development of border areas, the following 91 public servant posts have been created.
     (a) doctors      11 posts
     (b) dental surgeons     1 post
     (c) nurses     22 posts
     (d) midwives     14 posts
     (e) others     43 posts
Treatment of Drug Addicts
     (a) A drug treatment unit was set up at Kunlon Hospital, Shan State.
     (b) Training on the treatment of drug addition was given to doctors serving in border areas.
     (c) Paintings, reliefs, models and photographs on the treatment of drug addiction were put on display at the Anti-Drug Abuse Exhibition in Mongla.
Hospitals Upgraded
     Steps are now being taken to upgrade all the state/division level hospitals to 200 - bed ones. Plans are also under way to upgrade 16-bed, 50-bed, 100-bed and 150-bed hospitals to 25-bed, 50-bed, 100-bed and 150-bed and 200-bed ones respectively. education18
     Furthermore, specialists were posted at state/division hospitals as deemed necessary. The organizational set-ups of the Yangon General Hospital, Mandalay General Hosptial and North Okkalapa General Hospital were reviewed with the appointments of more professors, lecturers and specialists for all of them to be on a per and to enhance the quality of their medical services and teaching.
     With the upgrading of Laukkai Hospital, a surgeon, an obstetrician & gynaecologist and an anaesthetist and assistant surgeons have been assigned at the hospital which used to have only one doctor.
Human Resources for Health
     The following institutions under the Department of Medical Sciences have opened their classes in 2001.
    
Sr. Institution Course
1 Medical Institutes [M.B.,B.S] 3
2 Dental Institutes [B.D.S] 2
3 Institutes of Nursing 2
4 Institutes of Paramedical Sciences 2
5 Institutes of Pharmacy 2
6 Institute of Community Health 1
7 Institute of Dental Technicians 1
8 Institute for Dental Nursing 1
9 Training Schools for Nursing 38
Post Graduate Training Course ill 20111)
Sr. Institution Course
1 Doctorate Courses [M.Ed. - Sc 7
2 Ph.D Courses 7
3 Master Courses 20
4 Diploma Courses 27
Total 61
     The following post-graduate and diploma courses are being opened at the institutions under the Department of Medical Sciences.


Development of Border Areas and Special Regions
Sr Course Number of trainess
1 Course for doctorate in pre-clinical medicine 14
2 Course for doctorate in clinical medicine 153
3 17 master courses in Medical Science 348
4 Diaploma Course 81
5 Two diaploma courses for doctors/dental surgeons who are not government service 70
6 Four para medical sciences/pharmacy courses for sciences graduates 50
Total.. 723
     In 2001, 47 persons completed their masters in medical science; 49 finished their diploma course on medical science (31 on hospital management diploma); 915 passed their final examination on diploma in nursing; 333 completed their 18-month midwifery course and 15 finished their nine-month special nurse course.
     Up to 2001, since 1988 there are 36 Ph Ds, 72 MRCPs, 23 MRCPCHS, 25 MRCOGs, 58 FRCSs, 3 FRCS (ENT)s totalling 219 foreign-trained experts in various sectors of medical profession.
Health Education Exhibition
     Health education exhibition were opened under the Myanmar-Thai border health collaboration programme at Tachilek in Shan State and Maesai in Thailand were opened at Shan Yoma Departmental Store in Tachilek Shan State (East), Myanmar and Maesai, Chiangrai District, Thailand on 30th September 2001.
     In exhibitions, the booths on systematic health development in Myanmar, health activities jointly carried out by Myanmar and Thailand and border area development, regional development of Shan State (East), development of traditional medicine and public health education were exhibited in Tarchilek and Maesai.
Kidney' Transplant Operation
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     Myanmar surgeons, physicians and other medical professionals have performed the nine successful kindney transplant operations for 13 patients at the Yangon and Mandalay General Hospital up to February 2002.
National Immunization Days
     Myanmar has been implementing programmes since 1995 for elimination of poliomyelitis in the country. National Immunization Days were designated since 1997 and up to now. The programme covers border areas as well and polio vaccines were administered to children under the age of 5 years on the most recent Immunization Day.


1 st NIDs 2 nd NIDs 3 rd NIDs 4 th NIDs 5 th NIDs 6 th NIDs 7 th NIDs
Date(1st round) 10-2-96 15-12-96 14-12-97 12-12-98 12-12-99 11-2-01 9-12-01
Date(2 rd round) 10-3-96 18-1-97 18-1-98 17-1-99 16-1-00 13-3-01 13-1-02
Target Population(< 5 years) 5529343 5586609 5698341 5793163 5890807 6000000 610000
No. of Teams 33000 35000 37000 37000 37000 37000 38000
No.of Teams member 96% 99% 97% 97% 97% 98% 95%
     Twelve specialists - physician, surgeon, pediatrician, obstetrician & gynecologist, anaesthetist, orthopaedist, eye specialist, ear, nose & throat specialist, pathologist, radiologist, psychiatrist, and dental surgeon - were posted at each of Myitkyina, Loikaw, Pa-an, Haka, Monywa, Dawei, Bago, Pyay, Magwe, Mawlamyine, Sittwe, Taunggyi, Kyaington, Lashio and Pathein Hospitals, all of which are state/ division level hospitals.
     Furthermore, 282, posts for specialists were created at 48 district-level hospitals.
     In addition to conventional X-ray machines, modern instruments such as Ultra Sound, E.C.G Angiogram Endoscope and C.T Scan (Computerized Tomograph) are being installed at hospitals.
     A modern diagnostic instrument called M.R.I (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) was installed at the new Yangon General Hosptial in July 1996.
     The epilepsy centre was opened in front of the Neuro Medical Department building in November 1997.
     The Department of Health cooperates with international organizations and non-government organizations to look after the health of the people. In several instances, Orbis International visited Myanmar since 1997. Members of the flying hospital jointly performed operations and exchanged knowledge with Myanmar eye specialists and other health professionals on the occasion.
Health Services in Myanmar
     The main aim of the health services in Myanmar is to provide comprehensive health care to the people. The main areas of service delivery and support activities can be categorized broadly as; education19
    
1. Promotive and Preventive Services
2. Curative Services
3. Traditional Medicare
4. Research
5. Human Resources for Health
6. Financing Health
Sharing Costs on Health Services
     The cost-sharing mechanism on health services was initiated at four State general hospitals beginning March 1993. It is now been practised in 155 townships. Laboratories where patients were required to pay to a certain extent for the services rendered were opened at the Yangon General Hospital on 1 January 1993. There are now 35 hospitals which facilitate paid medical services and diagnostic and laboratory tests.
     The childhood development project that extended to the grassroots level began in 1992. By 1994-95, it has already covered all townships in the country.
     The border area health project was initiated in 1989. It has now covered 227 townships.
     Myanmar began to implement the birth spacing programme in nine townships in 1991 with the support of Family Planning International. It now covers 117 townships and among them United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) support the activities in 72 and 36 townships respectively.
Maternal and Child Health
     In Myanmar, more than sixty percent of total population is women and children who are the most vulnerable groups.
     Maternal and child health is the internal part of comprehensive health care delivery system. Focusing on the strength of basic health staff in cooperation with the various types of voluntary health workers, local administrative authorities, NGOs and the community, the health programme has put more emphasis on improvement of quality.
Florence Nightingale Award Winners
     The 38th Florence Nightingale Medal Award Ceremony was held on 29-8-2001 at Institute of Nursing, Yangon. Daw Thein Ye, Midwife of Homalin, Sagaing Division, received this award as a third awardee of Myanmar. The previous receipients in Myanmar are Major Daw Khin Ohn Mya (1963) and Nurse Daw M. Yaw Nan (1993).
Medical Research
     The Department of Medical Research carries out and supports the research programmes mentioned below.Interaction between nutrition and nutrition bacteria, malaria, snakebite, hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Myanmar sports, diarrhea, physi. ology, indigenous medicine, reproductive health, respiratory diseases, health system and epidemic.Research in Myanmar concerning malaria has focused on resistance of malarial protozoa against medicines and attack of malarial on congenital anemia (sicklecell anemia). In Myanmar, there are three kinds of protozoa that can cause malaria. Falsiparum is prevalent in hill regions. It can be resistant to anti-malarial medicines and cause encephalitis. A virus causes the second highest incidence of malaria. It was discovered in 1993 that it had become chloroquine-resistant The rate of incidence of malaria is still low at present.
Snakebite Research
     Research has been done on snakebites and farmers have been advised to do first aid in times of snakebites. Boots and gloves that can protect farmers from penetration of the snakes' fangs have been made on an experimental basis. Farmers from certain townships such as Taungdwingyi and Taikkyi are wearing them at work.
Viral Hepatitis Research
     Research findings have shown that in Myanmar hepatitis A,B,C and E have been either widespread or prevalent in certain areas from time to time. Vaccines are being produced to check hepatitis A, B and E viruses. Research on hepatitis C virus is being done with hepatitis patients as well as among the people. As hepatitis B vaccine produced on a preliminary basis through WHO and UNDP support met the WHO standards, more vaccines are being produced now.
Traditional Medicine Research
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     The Pharmacy Division has been paying its emphasis on the research of botanical features, chemical contents and medicinal values of medicinal plants in Myanmar. It is mentioned in the government's policies on primary health care of the people that research is to be done on indigenous medicines so that they will be on par with western medicines. Accordingly, dosage for 48 kinds of indigenous medicine has been standardized and their efficacy tested.
The Department of Traditional Medicine
     There are nine Traditional Medicine hospitals. They all give medical treatment to both in and out-patient. The number of traditional medicine clinics was increased from 14 in 1988 to 202 in 2000.
Institute of Traditional Medicine,Mandalay
     The Mandalay Institute of Traditional Medicine opened on 3 January 1976. From its 18 intakes, it has turned out 895 traditional medical practitioners by 1997. Graduates receive certificates on diploma in traditional medicine. The institute accepts 100 matericulates every year.
     The Myanmar Traditional Medical Practitioner's Conference
     It was held at Pyidaungsu Hall in Kyaikkasan Grounds on 15-17 December 2001.
     The Traditional Medical Practitioners were presented 21 papers at this conference and there was an exhibition of traditional medicines and products.
     The first conference was held in 1989, in 2000 and 2001 it's promotion.
Factories that Produce Traditional Medicines
     Yangon and Mandalay factories produce indigenous medicines. In addition to the medicines for use at their hospitals and clinics they also produce nine kinds of medicine.
    
TRADITION MEDICINE HOSPITAL[1988-2001]
State/Division Township District Hospitals
Kachin State 9 - -
Kayah State 8 - -
Kayin State 7 - -
Chin State 7 - -
Mon State 10 1 1
Rakhine State 10 1 1
Shan State 19 2 1
Sagaing Division 20 1 -
Tanintheryi Division 7 2 1
Bago Division 22 2 1-
Magway Division 16 2 1
Mandalay Division 23 1 1
Ayeyarwady Division 27 14 1
Yangon Division 19 1 1
Total.. 224 27 10
Volunteer Health Workers
Community health workers ... 39383
Auxiliary midwives ... 23322
Trained traditional birth attendants ... 15704
Health Personal[1988-88 to 2000-2001]
Doctors ... 14356
Nurses ... 12642
Health Assistants ... 1725
Lady Health Visitors ... 2106
Midwives ... 10307
Public Health Supervisor Grade 1&11 ... 6282
Health Facilities
Hospitals ... 742
Hospital Beds ... 30254
Rural Health Centres ... 1412
Dispensaries ... 350
Secondary Health Centres ... 86
Medical Institutions ... 9
Indigenous Hospitals ... 8
Maternal and Child Welfare Centres ... 348
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